Alfred W. Garbutt III, D.C., Inc.
The Anti-inflammatory and Other Physiological Modulating Effects of Naturally Occurring Xanthones
by Alfred Garbutt, D.C., D.A.C.R.B., D.A.B.C.N., D.A.A.P.M., D.A.B.D.A., F.A.C.C.R.S.
Western medicine and alternative health care has not until recent times
even heard of xanthones or mangosteen
There has been at least 46 xanthones isolated in the mangosteen fruit, primarily in the pericarp (rind). These xanthones have the same structural skeleton made up of two benzene rings joined by a carbonyl and an oxygen molecule. This configuration along with the type and position of attached chemical groups will give each type of xanthone its unique properties. This is why xanthones can be involved in such a variety of different physiological activities. Research from around the world has and is showing that xanthones have anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, anti-oxidant, immune modulating, anti-microbial and tumor shrinking properties.
Research by a group of scientists in India showed that mangostin, a major xanthone, was “active in suppressing acute as well as chronic inflammation.” Gopalakrishnan C, et al. Effect of mangostin, a xanthone from Garcinia mangostana Linn in immunopathological & inflammatory reactions. Indian J Exp Biol. 1980; 18(8):843-846.
Japanese researchers found that “gamma-mangostin… reduces prostaglandin
generation through its direct inhibition of COX (cylooxygenase).” This
research was indirectly demonstrating that gamma-mangostin prevents COX-2
gene transcription and it “is one of the candidates of the drugs for
treatment of brain diseases accompanied with inflammation.” These researchers
further stated that “ gamma-mangostin serves not only as a new attractive
pharmacological tool for studying the molecular mechanism underlying
inflammation but also as a new lead compound for drug development for
the prevention and/or treatment of inflammation and brain diseases.”
“mangosteen extract may be a useful crude drug for treatment of allergy
“The above results indicate the cardioprotective effect of mangiferin against ISPH (isoproterenol)-induced myocardial infarction in rats.” Prabhu, et al. Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus Chennai 600 025, India.
“The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of alpha-mangostin
on the antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation against isoproterenol-induced
myocardial infarction in rats.”
Devi Sampath, et al. Cardioprotective effect of alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from mangosteen on tissue defense system against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, India.
“gamma-mangostin (6) exhibited hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity”
“MF (30 mg/kg) reduced the blood cholesterol (p<0.05) and triglyceride level (p<0.01) of KK-Ay mice with exercise 2 weeks after oral administration when compared with the control group.” Muira, et al. The suppressive effect of mangiferin with exercise on blood lipids in type 2 diabetes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Sep; 24(9): 1091-2.
“our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana (mangostin) had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.” Chomnawang J. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3; 101(1-3): 330-3.
A mouthwash with the rind of the mangosteen reduced levels of oral volatile sulfur compounds. Rassameemasmaung S. Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index. J Int Acad Peridontol. 2007 Jan; 9(1): 19-25.
“The isolated proanthocyanidins are potent peroxyl radical scavengers
as evidenced by the high oxygen radical scavenging capacity at 1.7 x
10 (4) micromol TE/g, much higher than that of pine bark and grape seed
Based upon the quantity of fundamental peer reviewed published data and reports of clinical application of the mangosteen with its variety of xanthones and other anti-oxidants, the whole fruit mangosteen should be considered as a relatively safe and prime alternative to help reduce and/or prevent excess inflammation in our patient population.
Copyright © 2002 Alfred W. Garbutt, III, D.C., Inc.